Evaluation of Toluene Vapors on the Hearing System of a Production Company Employee: A carcinogenic agent
Introduction: Hearing loss is one of the most common causes of disability of more than 1.33 billion people worldwide and, according to WHO research, failure to timely detect hearing loss has detrimental effects on the individual, the family and the world economy ($ 750 billion), Therefore, exposure to excessive noise and exposure to organic solvents can cause hearing loss in individuals.
Methods: This descriptive-analytical study was performed on a manufacturing company with a statistical population of 17 people (8 employees of printing and electroplating unit with a mean age of 40±4.78 and 9 employees of Coldwell unit with a mean age of 4.33±41). Data were analyzed by SPSS software version 16 and paired T-test.
Results: According to the pollutant results in the Coldwell unit, the noise level was exceeded, but the toluene levels were measured at the permissible level, which, according to the software output, showed a faster rate of hearing loss (Right ear sig = 0.007 and left ear sig = 0.002)
and also, in the printing and plating unit, the sound level was above the permissible limit, but the toluene level was exceeded, which according to the software output of these units had a lower rate of hearing loss.
Conclusion: The results of this study show that simultaneous exposure to noise and organic solvents such as toluene in the workplace accelerates the Occupational Hearing Loss Process, as well as employees who are not exposed to noise, are reasonably hearing impaired due to exposure to toluene.
keywords: Noise, Audiometry, Occupational Hearing Loss, Measurement of Workplace Hazardous Factors, Organic Solvent Vapor, Toluene Vapor.
Noise is one of the most important physical harmful factors in the workplace, and noise-induced hearing loss is one of the ten most important work-related illnesses in the world  and has caused more than 1.33 billion people to be disabled in the world . According to WHO research Failure to Identify Early Hearing Losses Causes Impacts on Individual, Family, and World Economy ($ 750 Billion)  Sensory-Neural Hearing Losses in both Temporary Threshold Shift and Temporary Hearing Loss Permanent Threshold Shift (PTS) occurs as a result of permanent or irreversible hearing loss due to permanent damage to the hearing system . Exposure to excessive noise (over 85 dB) is a major cause of occupational hearing loss, but exposure to a variety of harmful factors, particularly organic solvents, in industrial environments can exacerbate the impact of noise on hearing loss. Intensify . Occupational hearing loss due to exposure to chemical solvents often referred to as solvent-induced hearing loss (SIHL), and the most important of these solvents, according to studies include Styrene, xylene, ethylbenzene, trichloroethylene, carbon disulfide, ethanol, heptane, and hexane that some of them is carcinogenic . Similar studies also emphasize that workers' exposure to chemicals, especially aromatic solvents (such as toluene, styrene, ethylbenzene and carbon disulfide) or simultaneous exposure to the above chemicals and noise in the workplace, exacerbates the risk of hearing loss. In these studies, it has been recommended that more attention be paid to the results of measuring workplace harmful factors [10, 19, 20]. Among the solvents and organic compounds used in the BTEX, industry are 4 benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene and have similar physical and chemical properties and their main characteristic is their high evaporation rate , and workers are exposed to BTEX when working with a variety of thinners, paints and lacquers for work processes, as well as washing parts and equipment through inhalation, peeling and eating, which is the most important way is to inhale . Also, Carcinogenicity of BTEX has been proven [23, 24]. Toluene is widely used in the aromatic solvents industry. Toluene comprises major components of adhesives, paints, industrial varnishes, polishers, oil cleaners, fuel additives and There are types of thinners .
Studies have shown the toxic and adverse effects of toluene on the auditory system  and also reduce hearing loss [28, 29] and chronic exposure to aromatic solvents has adverse effects on the central nervous system [30-32]. Therefore, in the present study, we investigated the effects of toluene on workers' hearing systems in a manufacturing company during 2003-2009.
Materials and Methods
This descriptive-analytical study was carried out in a home appliance manufacturing company in 1398 in 16 years (1382-1398). The purpose of this study was to investigate the probability of exposure to chemical solvents on the auditory system. In this regard, different production units were investigated and staff of printing, electroplating, and Coldwell were exposed to solvents especially toluene. In the printing and electroplating sector, the noise level is exceeded, but in the electroplating section, the measurement is exceeded. The printing unit staff uses a mixture of liquid and thinner to label plastic parts, such as freezer basket lid, drawer (one-piece drawer), plastic box compartment, large fruit compartment, ice door, etc. They use Ritard and alcohol solvents to scrub the surface of scrap and clean the machine and prepare for the next working day, and the plating staff to paint the refrigerator condenser from a thinner-liquid mixture, and for lacquer evaporators and refrigerators. The freezer uses a mixture of lacquer and thinner. (Condenser and evaporator are cooling gas rotating chambers in the refrigerator.). Staff at the Coldwell Unit use a mineral thinner to wash all types of copper pipes to produce heater, jumper, etc., and then dry the aforementioned parts with compressed air, which raises the noise (over permitted) In the work environment.
In summary, the target group in this study included 17 people:
1) 8 employees with an average age of 40±4.78 and working experience of 17.25±1.98 in the printing and plating unit who deal directly with toluene and according to the measurements, the noise in the workplace is excessive and sometimes lower than allowed.
2) 9 employees with a mean age of 41±4.33 and working experience of 17.88±1.69 per unit who deal directly with toluene vapors and noise are too high in the work environment.
Sound measurement in the year 1382, in dosimeter  (which is the most reliable method of measuring and evaluating worker exposure because the device is during the shift with the worker and at the end of the shift shows the actual size of the received dose) at stations where the sound is received. Over frequency (over 85 dB) Frequency analysis, SIL interference level was also performed, it should be noted that the sound pressure level in network A using CEL-440 device equipped with filter, analyzer and The CASELA-CELL UK CEL-282 calibrator is designed to measure sound pressure levels in all three A, C and linear networks with a resolution of 0. It has 1 dB and the octave band analysis section of the device was performed in 11 bands with 16HZ-16KHZ octobond centers. And in 1389, the equivalent noise level (Leq: Equivalent Sound Level) was measured to measure different sound levels during shift work and to evaluate worker exposure. Audiometry [34, 35] (the most important method of hearing assessment) of workers in plating, printing and Coldwell units from periodic examinations [36-40]. from 1382 to 1398 Extraction and airborne hearing threshold at low frequencies of 250, 500, 1000, 2000 And at high frequencies 3000, 4000, 6000 and 8000  were measured by an experienced audiometer with the MEWOX SA15 audiometer. Occupational exposure limits are set to 8 hours per day and 40 hours per week and adjusted to 9-hour shifts (OEL - TWA *) daily for exposure times above normal using the Bariff and Scala model. Or weekly (OEL = modified) and to determine the daily reduction coefficient or FR of / 16 (24-hr) RF = 8 / hr * which is the hr of daily work hours, according to the two mathematical relationships above, the daily coefficient of reduction for a 9-hour shift is as follows:
Therefore, by increasing the daily working hours from 8 to 9 hours, the permissible limit was calculated according to the NIOSH1501  standard. Data were analyzed using SPSS 16 software and paired T-test.
Concerning the explanations provided, the results of sound measurements in the Coldwell, printing and plating sections during 1382 and 1398 are presented in Table 1.
|Row||Section||Year||Volume (dB)||Speech Interference Level(SIL)|
Measurements of toluene vapors in Coldwell, Printing, and plating sections were presented in Tables 2 and 3 during 1382 and 1398.
|No||Section||Sampling time(minute)||The total volume of sampled air(liter)||Measurement method||Absorbent type||The concentration of toluene(PPM)||Result|
|1||Coldwell||87min||15.66 = 7.92 ± 7.74||NIOSH 1501||Coconut Shell charcoal||3.36||Optimal|
|2||82min||14.76 = 7.56 ± 7.2||0.0014||Optimal|
|3||Plating||115min||14.95 = 7.28 ± 7.67||28||Undesirable|
After analyzing the data from noise and toluene pollutants in the workplace and extracting the audiometric data from medical records, the data were analyzed by paired t-test and SPSS 16 software, and the results are presented in Table 3. Due to the purpose of the study and considering that the concentration of toluene in the plating area was exceeded, but in the printing unit, it was within the permissible range. Therefore, the results of these two units were examined together and presented separately in rows 3 and 4 of Table 3.
|Row||Section||Organ||Standard deviation± mean||Paired T value||Sig<0.05|
|1||Coldwell||Right ear 82||9.93±1.77||T = -2.765||Sig-0.007|
|Right ear 98||12.36±7.01|
|Coldwell||Left ear 82||13.61±9.72||T = -3.212||Sig=0.002|
|Left ear 98||17.22±13.13|
|2||Print and Plating||Right ear 82||9.6±4.36||T = -4.206||Sig=0.000|
|Right ear 98||13.04±7.99|
|Print and Plating||Left ear 82||10.07±3.83||T = -4.619||Sig=0.000|
|Left ear 98||14.68±8.72|
|3||Right ear 82||9.21±5.09||T = -4.268||Sig=0.000|
|Right ear 98||13.75±9.33|
|Left ear 82||10.46±3.88||T = -4.366||Sig=0.000|
|Left ear 98||17.03±10.06|
|4||Plating||Right ear 82||9.68±3.79||T = -2.161||Sig=0.039|
|Right ear 98||12.34±6.47|
|Plating||Left ear 82||9.68±3.79||T = -2.161||Sig=0.039|
|Left ear 98||12.34±6.47|
According to the results presented in Table 3, it was found that the employees of ColdWall Unit, with an average age of 41 4. ±4.33 and a working experience of 17.88 ± 1.69, had a faster hearing loss due to exposure to workplace noise and toluene vapors -This result is consistent with a similar study - ( Right ear sig=0.007 , and Left ear sig=0.002) Employees of printing and electroplating units with average age of 40 ± 4.78 and work experience of 17.25 ± 1.98, due to the permissible noise level in their work environment, they have a slower process of hearing loss(Right and Left ear sig=0.000) This can be attributed to the organic solvents in the workplace, especially toluene , Thus, the results of this study are consistent with similar studies that have investigated the effects of organic solvents such as toluene, benzene, ethylbenzene, etc. on the auditory system [7-12, 19, 20, 27, 28], particularly in the study of Mohammadi et al(2009) Employees exposed to simultaneous exposure to organic solvents and noise should pay particular attention to a hearing protection program including shorter audiometric examinations as well as the use of appropriate protective phones . To examine the subject more closely and to compare the effects of toluene on printing and plating staff gave that the amount of toluene in the print was allowed but this amount was exceeded in the plating. According to the statistical comparison in Table 4, it was determined by separating the printing and plating units whose point of subsidence was as high as the noise level allowed , Employees of the plating unit (exposed to solvent-specific toluene 9 months per year) have a slower hearing loss than the print unit (exposed to solvent-specific toluene for 12 months per year). It can be concluded that daily exposure to toluene will only cause hearing loss in employees, which is significantly lower than the frequency of 4000 Hz in the left ear of the printing unit staff (sig = 0.049). However, there was no significant decrease in plating staff at high frequencies. It is suggested that in future studies, organic solvents in the workplace such as BTEX – as an environmental carcinogen [23, 24]- should first be analyzed by reputable laboratories and separated into its components. Moreover, the amount of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene should become clear and then study the target group (people exposed to toluene), Preference should be given more precisely to the measurement of hazardous factors in the workplace for the accuracy of the results, and the statistical population should include at least 30 people for exposure to toluene and noise when both are excessive, 30 people for exposure to toluene and noise when each Two are less than the limit and at least 30 should be considered when the toluene is too high and the noise is below the maximum.
We would like to thank all our esteemed colleagues and staff who assisted in this study.
- The global burden of occupational noise-induced hearing loss Nelson Deborah Imel, Nelson Robert Y., Concha-Barrientos Marisol, Fingerhut Marilyn. American Journal of Industrial Medicine.2005;48(6). CrossRef
- Global, regional, and national age-sex specific mortality for 264 causes of death, 1980–2016: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2016 Naghavi Mohsen, Abajobir Amanuel Alemu, Abbafati Cristiana, Abbas Kaja M, Abd-Allah Foad, Abera Semaw Ferede, Aboyans Victor, Adetokunboh Olatunji, Afshin Ashkan, Agrawal Anurag, Ahmadi Alireza, Ahmed Muktar Beshir, Aichour Amani Nidhal, Aichour Miloud Taki Eddine, Aichour Ibtihel, Aiyar Sneha, Alahdab Fares, Al-Aly Ziyad, Alam Khurshid, Alam Noore, Alam Tahiya, Alene Kefyalew Addis, Al-Eyadhy Ayman, Ali Syed Danish, Alizadeh-Navaei Reza, Alkaabi Juma M, Alkerwi Ala'a, Alla François, Allebeck Peter, Allen Christine, Al-Raddadi Rajaa, Alsharif Ubai, Altirkawi Khalid A, Alvis-Guzman Nelson, Amare Azmeraw T, Amini Erfan, Ammar Walid, Amoako Yaw Ampem, Anber Nahla, Andersen Hjalte H, Andrei Catalina Liliana, Androudi Sofia, Ansari Hossein, Antonio Carl Abelardo T, Anwari Palwasha, Ärnlöv Johan, Arora Megha, Artaman Al, Aryal Krishna Kumar, Asayesh Hamid, Asgedom Solomon W, Atey Tesfay Mehari, Avila-Burgos Leticia, Avokpaho Euripide Frinel G, Awasthi Ashish, Babalola Tesleem Kayode, Bacha Umar, Balakrishnan Kalpana, Barac Aleksandra, Barboza Miguel A, Barker-Collo Suzanne L, Barquera Simon, Barregard Lars, Barrero Lope H, Baune Bernhard T, Bedi Neeraj, Beghi Ettore, Béjot Yannick, Bekele Bayu Begashaw, Bell Michelle L, Bennett James R, Bensenor Isabela M, Berhane Adugnaw, Bernabé Eduardo, Betsu Balem Demtsu, Beuran Mircea, Bhatt Samir, Biadgilign Sibhatu, Bienhoff Kelly, Bikbov Boris, Bisanzio Donal, Bourne Rupert R A, Breitborde Nicholas J K, Bulto Lemma Negesa Bulto, Bumgarner Blair R, Butt Zahid A, Cahuana-Hurtado Lucero, Cameron Ewan, Campuzano Julio Cesar, Car Josip, Cárdenas Rosario, Carrero Juan Jesus, Carter Austin, Casey Daniel C, Castañeda-Orjuela Carlos A, Catalá-López Ferrán, Charlson Fiona J, Chibueze Chioma Ezinne, Chimed-Ochir Odgerel, Chisumpa Vesper Hichilombwe, Chitheer Abdulaal A, Christopher Devasahayam Jesudas, Ciobanu Liliana G, Cirillo Massimo, Cohen Aaron J, Colombara Danny, Cooper Cyrus, Cowie Benjamin C, Criqui Michael H, Dandona Lalit, Dandona Rakhi, Dargan Paul I, das Neves José, Davitoiu Dragos V, Davletov Kairat, de Courten Barbora, Defo Barthelemy Kuate, Degenhardt Louisa, Deiparine Selina, Deribe Kebede, Deribew Amare, Dey Subhojit, Dicker Daniel, Ding Eric L, Djalalinia Shirin, Do Huyen Phuc, Doku David Teye, Douwes-Schultz Dirk, Driscoll Tim R, Dubey Manisha, Duncan Bruce Bartholow, Echko Michelle, El-Khatib Ziad Ziad, Ellingsen Christian Lycke, Enayati Ahmadali, Ermakov Sergey Petrovich, Erskine Holly E, Eskandarieh Sharareh, Esteghamati Alireza, Estep Kara, Farinha Carla Sofia e Sa, Faro André, Farzadfar Farshad, Feigin Valery L, Fereshtehnejad Seyed-Mohammad, Fernandes João C, Ferrari Alize J, Feyissa Tesfaye Regassa, Filip Irina, Finegold Samuel, Fischer Florian, Fitzmaurice Christina, Flaxman Abraham D, Foigt Nataliya, Frank Tahvi, Fraser Maya, Fullman Nancy, Fürst Thomas, Furtado Joao M, Gakidou Emmanuela, Garcia-Basteiro Alberto L, Gebre Teshome, Gebregergs Gebremedhin Berhe, Gebrehiwot Tsegaye Tewelde, Gebremichael Delelegn Yilma, Geleijnse Johanna M, Genova-Maleras Ricard, Gesesew Hailay Abrha, Gething Peter W, Gillum Richard F, Giref Ababi Zergaw, Giroud Maurice, Giussani Giorgia, Godwin William W, Gold Audra L, Goldberg Ellen M, Gona Philimon N, Gopalani Sameer Vali, Gouda Hebe N, Goulart Alessandra Carvalho, Griswold Max, Gupta Rajeev, Gupta Tanush, Gupta Vipin, Gupta Parkash C, Haagsma Juanita A, Hafezi-Nejad Nima, Hailu Alemayehu Desalegne, Hailu Gessessew Bugssa, Hamadeh Randah Ribhi, Hambisa Mitiku Teshome, Hamidi Samer, Hammami Mouhanad, Hancock Jamie, Handal Alexis J, Hankey Graeme J, Hao Yuantao, Harb Hilda L, Hareri Habtamu Abera, Hassanvand Mohammad Sadegh, Havmoeller Rasmus, Hay Simon I, He Fei, Hedayati Mohammad T, Henry Nathaniel J, Heredia-Pi Ileana Beatriz, Herteliu Claudiu, Hoek Hans W, Horino Masako, Horita Nobuyuki, Hosgood H Dean, Hostiuc Sorin, Hotez Peter J, Hoy Damian G, Huynh Chantal, Iburg Kim Moesgaard, Ikeda Chad, Ileanu Bogdan Vasile, Irenso Asnake Ararsa, Irvine Caleb Mackay Salpeter, Islam Sheikh Mohammed Shariful, Jacobsen Kathryn H, Jahanmehr Nader, Jakovljevic Mihajlo B, Javanbakht Mehdi, Jayaraman Sudha P, Jeemon Panniyammakal, Jha Vivekanand, John Denny, Johnson Catherine O, Johnson Sarah Charlotte, Jonas Jost B, Jürisson Mikk, Kabir Zubair, Kadel Rajendra, Kahsay Amaha, Kamal Ritul, Karch André, Karimi Seyed M, Karimkhani Chante, Kasaeian Amir, Kassaw Nigussie Assefa, Kassebaum Nicholas J, Katikireddi Srinivasa Vittal, Kawakami Norito, Keiyoro Peter Njenga, Kemmer Laura, Kesavachandran Chandrasekharan Nair, Khader Yousef Saleh, Khan Ejaz Ahmad, Khang Young-Ho, Khoja Abdullah Tawfih Abdullah, Khosravi Mohammad Hossein, Khosravi Ardeshir, Khubchandani Jagdish, Kiadaliri Aliasghar Ahmad, Kieling Christian, Kievlan Daniel, Kim Yun Jin, Kim Daniel, Kimokoti Ruth W, Kinfu Yohannes, Kissoon Niranjan, Kivimaki Mika, Knudsen Ann Kristin, Kopec Jacek A, Kosen Soewarta, Koul Parvaiz A, Koyanagi Ai, Kulikoff Xie Rachel, Kumar G Anil, Kumar Pushpendra, Kutz Michael, Kyu Hmwe H, Lal Dharmesh Kumar, Lalloo Ratilal, Lambert Tea Lallukka Nkurunziza, Lan Qing, Lansingh Van C, Larsson Anders, Lee Paul H, Leigh James, Leung Janni, Levi Miriam, Li Yongmei, Li Kappe Darya, Liang Xiaofeng, Liben Misgan Legesse, Lim Stephen S, Liu Patrick Y, Liu Angela, Liu Yang, Lodha Rakesh, Logroscino Giancarlo, Lorkowski Stefan, Lotufo Paulo A, Lozano Rafael, Lucas Timothy C D, Ma Stefan, Macarayan Erlyn Rachelle King, Maddison Emilie R, Magdy Abd El Razek Mohammed, Majdan Marek, Majdzadeh Reza, Majeed Azeem, Malekzadeh Reza, Malhotra Rajesh, Malta Deborah Carvalho, Manguerra Helena, Manyazewal Tsegahun, Mapoma Chabila C, Marczak Laurie B, Markos Desalegn, Martinez-Raga Jose, Martins-Melo Francisco Rogerlândio, Martopullo Ira, McAlinden Colm, McGaughey Madeline, McGrath John J, Mehata Suresh, Meier Toni, Meles Kidanu Gebremariam, Memiah Peter, Memish Ziad A, Mengesha Melkamu Merid, Mengistu Desalegn Tadese, Menota Bereket Gebremichael, Mensah George A, Meretoja Tuomo J, Meretoja Atte, Millear Anoushka, Miller Ted R, Minnig Shawn, Mirarefin Mojde, Mirrakhimov Erkin M, Misganaw Awoke, Mishra Shiva Raj, Mohamed Ibrahim Abdelmageem, Mohammad Karzan Abdulmuhsin, Mohammadi Alireza, Mohammed Shafiu, Mokdad Ali H, Mola Glen Liddell D, Mollenkopf Sarah K, Molokhia Mariam, Monasta Lorenzo, Montañez Julio C, Montico Marcella, Mooney Meghan D, Moradi-Lakeh Maziar, Moraga Paula, Morawska Lidia, Morozoff Chloe, Morrison Shane D, Mountjoy-Venning Cliff, Mruts Kalayu Birhane, Muller Kate, Murthy Gudlavalleti Venkata Satyanarayana, Musa Kamarul Imran, Nachega Jean B, Naheed Aliya, Naldi Luigi, Nangia Vinay, Nascimento Bruno Ramos, Nasher Jamal T, Natarajan Gopalakrishnan, Negoi Ionut, Ngunjiri Josephine Wanjiku, Nguyen Cuong Tat, Nguyen Quyen Le, Nguyen Trang Huyen, Nguyen Grant, Nguyen Minh, Nichols Emma, Ningrum Dina Nur Anggraini, Nong Vuong Minh, Noubiap Jean Jacques N, Ogbo Felix Akpojene, Oh In-Hwan, Okoro Anselm, Olagunju Andrew Toyin, Olsen Helen E, Olusanya Bolajoko Olubukunola, Olusanya Jacob Olusegun, Ong Kanyin, Opio John Nelson, Oren Eyal, Ortiz Alberto, Osman Majdi, Ota Erika, PA Mahesh, Pacella Rosana E, Pakhale Smita, Pana Adrian, Panda Basant Kumar, Panda-Jonas Songhomitra, Papachristou Christina, Park Eun-Kee, Patten Scott B, Patton George C, Paudel Deepak, Paulson Katherine, Pereira David M, Perez-Ruiz Fernando, Perico Norberto, Pervaiz Aslam, Petzold Max, Phillips Michael Robert, Pigott David M, Pinho Christine, Plass Dietrich, Pletcher Martin A, Polinder Suzanne, Postma Maarten J, Pourmalek Farshad, Purcell Caroline, Qorbani Mostafa, Quintanilla Beatriz Paulina Ayala, Radfar Amir, Rafay Anwar, Rahimi-Movaghar Vafa, Rahman Mohammad Hifz Ur, Rahman Mahfuzar, Rai Rajesh Kumar, Ranabhat Chhabi Lal, Rankin Zane, Rao Puja C, Rath Goura Kishor, Rawaf Salman, Ray Sarah E, Rehm Jürgen, Reiner Robert C, Reitsma Marissa B, Remuzzi Giuseppe, Rezaei Satar, Rezai Mohammad Sadegh, Rokni Mohammad Bagher, Ronfani Luca, Roshandel Gholamreza, Roth Gregory A, Rothenbacher Dietrich, Ruhago George Mugambage, SA Rizwan, Saadat Soheil, Sachdev Perminder S, Sadat Nafis, Safdarian Mahdi, Safi Sare, Safiri Saeid, Sagar Rajesh, Sahathevan Ramesh, Salama Joseph, Salamati Payman, Salomon Joshua A, Samy Abdallah M, Sanabria Juan Ramon, Sanchez-Niño Maria Dolores, Santomauro Damian, Santos Itamar S, Santric Milicevic Milena M, Sartorius Benn, Satpathy Maheswar, Schmidt Maria Inês, Schneider Ione J C, Schulhofer-Wohl Sam, Schutte Aletta E, Schwebel David C, Schwendicke Falk, Sepanlou Sadaf G, Servan-Mori Edson E, Shackelford Katya Anne, Shahraz Saeid, Shaikh Masood Ali, Shamsipour Mansour, Shamsizadeh Morteza, Sharma Jayendra, Sharma Rajesh, She Jun, Sheikhbahaei Sara, Shey Muki, Shi Peilin, Shields Chloe, Shigematsu Mika, Shiri Rahman, Shirude Shreya, Shiue Ivy, Shoman Haitham, Shrime Mark G, Sigfusdottir Inga Dora, Silpakit Naris, Silva João Pedro, Singh Jasvinder A, Singh Abhishek, Skiadaresi Eirini, Sligar Amber, Smith David L, Smith Alison, Smith Mari, Sobaih Badr H A, Soneji Samir, Sorensen Reed J D, Soriano Joan B, Sreeramareddy Chandrashekhar T, Srinivasan Vinay, Stanaway Jeffrey D, Stathopoulou Vasiliki, Steel Nicholas, Stein Dan J, Steiner Caitlyn, Steinke Sabine, Stokes Mark Andrew, Strong Mark, Strub Bryan, Subart Michelle, Sufiyan Muawiyyah Babale, Sunguya Bruno F, Sur Patrick J, Swaminathan Soumya, Sykes Bryan L, Tabarés-Seisdedos Rafael, Tadakamadla Santosh Kumar, Takahashi Ken, Takala Jukka S, Talongwa Roberto Tchio, Tarawneh Mohammed Rasoul, Tavakkoli Mohammad, Taveira Nuno, Tegegne Teketo Kassaw, Tehrani-Banihashemi Arash, Temsah Mohamad-Hani, Terkawi Abdullah Sulieman, Thakur J S, Thamsuwan Ornwipa, Thankappan Kavumpurathu Raman, Thomas Katie E, Thompson Alex H, Thomson Alan J, Thrift Amanda G, Tobe-Gai Ruoyan, Topor-Madry Roman, Torre Anna, Tortajada Miguel, Towbin Jeffrey Allen, Tran Bach Xuan, Troeger Christopher, Truelsen Thomas, Tsoi Derrick, Tuzcu Emin Murat, Tyrovolas Stefanos, Ukwaja Kingsley N, Undurraga Eduardo A, Updike Rachel, Uthman Olalekan A, Uzochukwu Benjamin S Chudi, van Boven Job F M, Vasankari Tommi, Venketasubramanian Narayanaswamy, Violante Francesco S, Vlassov Vasiliy Victorovich, Vollset Stein Emil, Vos Theo, Wakayo Tolassa, Wallin Mitchell T, Wang Yuan-Pang, Weiderpass Elisabete, Weintraub Robert G, Weiss Daniel J, Werdecker Andrea, Westerman Ronny, Whetter Brian, Whiteford Harvey A, Wijeratne Tissa, Wiysonge Charles Shey, Woldeyes Belete Getahun, Wolfe Charles D A, Woodbrook Rachel, Workicho Abdulhalik, Xavier Denis, Xiao Qingyang, Xu Gelin, Yaghoubi Mohsen, Yakob Bereket, Yano Yuichiro, Yaseri Mehdi, Yimam Hassen Hamid, Yonemoto Naohiro, Yoon Seok-Jun, Yotebieng Marcel, Younis Mustafa Z, Zaidi Zoubida, Zaki Maysaa El Sayed, Zegeye Elias Asfaw, Zenebe Zerihun Menlkalew, Zerfu Taddese Alemu, Zhang Anthony Lin, Zhang Xueying, Zipkin Ben, Zodpey Sanjay, Lopez Alan D, Murray Christopher J L. The Lancet.2017;390(10100). CrossRef
- Global costs of unaddressed hearing loss and cost-effectiveness of interventions: a WHO report, 2017: World Health Organization; 2017. Organization WH. .
- Hearing loss. Current Occupational & Environmental Medicine Schindler David N, Jackler Robert K, Robinson Scott T. ;10.
- Occupational and environmental medicine, Appleton and Lange. Prentice Hall, Stamford/Connecticut, USA Ladou J. 1997.
- A Textbook of Audiological Medicine: Clinical Aspects of Hearing and Balance: CRC Press Luxon L, Furman JM, Martini A, Stephens SDG. 2002.
- Evaluation of Combined Effect of Organic Solvents and Noise by the Upper Limit of Hearing. MORIOKA Ikuharu, MIYAI Nobuyuki, YAMAMOTO Hiroichi, MIYASHITA Kazuhisa. INDUSTRIAL HEALTH.2000;38(2). CrossRef
- Occupational chemical-induced hearing loss. Hearing loss Fuente A, McPherson B. 2012;:171-190.
- Managing the work environment and facilities: code of practice: Safe Work Australia Australia SW. ;2011.
- Ototoxic Substances at the Workplace: a Brief Update Nies Eberhard. Archives of Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology.2012;63(2). CrossRef
- Effects of industrial solvents on hearing and balance: A review Prasher Deepak, Hodgkinson Lyn. Noise and Health.2006;8(32). CrossRef
- SYNERGISTIC EFFECTS OF NOISE AND SOLVENTS-WHAT WE KNOW AND FUTURE RESEARCH NEEDS. Synergistic exposure to noise, vibrations and ototoxic substances Toppila E. ;2010(33).
- Assessment of Semi-Quantitative Health Risks of Exposure to Harmful Chemical Agents in the Context of Carcinogenesis in the Latex Glove Manufacturing Industry Yari Saeed, Asadi Ayda Fallah, Varmazyar Sakineh. Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention.2016;17(sup3). CrossRef
- Inherent safety design in compose of urban gas station Yari S. Safety Promotion and Injury Prevention.2015;3(2):135-140.
- Assessment of potential risk by the failure mode and effects analysis in an air conditioning equipment manufacturing company Yari S. Journal of Safety Promotion and Injury Prevention.2017;5(2).
- Preparation and psychometry of a safety assessment questionnaire for urban gas stations Yari S, Pouyakian M, Jafari MJ, Alipour A, Varmazyar S. Safety Promotion and Injury Prevention.2018;5(3):169-180.
- Evaluation of respiratory exposure to 4, 4-methylene diphenyl diisocyanate (MDI) vapors in foam injection workers in a household appliance manufacturing company: An Occupational Carcinogen Nikpey A, Saeidabadi H, Sheikhi S, Yari S, Madarsara TJ. Asian Pacific Journal of Environment and Cancer.2019;2(1).
- Simulation the Probability of Liberalizing Chlorin Gas from Urban Water Chlorination System in Alborz: With the Cancer Approach Yari S, Saeedabadi H. 2019.
- Chemical exposure and hearing loss Campo Pierre, Morata Thais C., Hong OiSaeng. Disease-a-Month.2013;59(4). CrossRef
- Noise-Induced Hearing Loss in Korean Workers: Co-Exposure to Organic Solvents and Heavy Metals in Nationwide Industries Choi Yoon-Hyeong, Kim KyooSang. PLoS ONE.2014;9(5). CrossRef
- The impact of BTEX emissions from gas stations into the atmosphere Correa SM, Arbilla G, Marques MR, Oliveira KM. Atmospheric pollution research.2012;3(2):163-169.
- The evaluation of personal exposure to BTEX compounds in the traditional restaurants in Hamadan in 2013 Samarghandi M, Mehralipour J, Shabanlo A, Rahimpoor R. 2014.
- Occupational and Environmental Cancer Yari Saeed, Fallah Asadi Ayda, Nourmohammadi Mohammad. Asian Pacific Journal of Environment and Cancer.2018;1(1). CrossRef
- CARcinogen EXposure: CAREX Yari Saeed, Fallah Asadi Ayda, Mosavi Jarrahi Alireza, Nourmohammadi Mohammad. Asian Pacific Journal of Environment and Cancer.2018;1(1). CrossRef
- Toluene: Evaluation of risks to human health from environmental exposure in Canada Meek M. E., Chan P.K.L.. Journal of Environmental Science and Health, Part C.1994;12(2). CrossRef
- Otoneurological study in workers exposed to styrene in the fiberglass industry Calabrese G., Martini A., Sessa G., Cellini M., Bartolucci G. B., Marcuzzo G., De Rosa E.. International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health.1996;68(4). CrossRef
- Toluene-induced hearing loss among rotogravure printing workers Morata TC, Fiorini AC, Fischer Frida M, Colacioppo S, Wallingford KM, Krieg EF, Dunn DE, Gozzoli L, Padrão MA, Cesar CLG. Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment & Health.1997;23(4). CrossRef
- Transient cognitive deficits and high-frequency hearing loss in weanling rats exposed to toluene Pryor G, Dickinson J, Howd R, Rebert C. Neurobehavioral Toxicology and Teratology.1983;5(1):53-57.
- Hearing loss in rats caused by inhalation of mixed xylenes and styrene Pryor Gordon T., Rebert Charles S., Howd Robert A.. Journal of Applied Toxicology.1987;7(1). CrossRef
- The Central Nervous System and Exposure to Toluene: A Risk Characterization Greenberg Mark M. Environmental Research.1997;72(1). CrossRef
- Multifocal central nervous system damage caused by toluene abuse Lazar R. B., Ho S. U., Melen O., Daghestani A. N.. Neurology.1983;33(10). CrossRef
- Otoneurological findings in workers exposed to styrene. Moller C, Odkvist L, Larsby B, Tham R, Ledin T, Bergholtz L. Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment & Health.1990;16(3). CrossRef
- Noise & vibration engineering: Tehran Golmohamadi R. 2003.
- Self-Reported Hearing Difficulty Versus Audiometric Screening in Younger and Older Smokers and Nonsmokers Ramkissoon . Journal of Clinical Medicine Research.2011. CrossRef
- Self-Reported Hearing Loss in Baby Boomers from the Busselton Healthy Ageing Study: Audiometric Correspondence and Predictive Value Swanepoel De Wet, Eikelboom Robert H., Hunter Michael L., Friedland Peter L., Atlas Marcus D.. Journal of the American Academy of Audiology.2013;24(6). CrossRef
- Introduction to Occupational and Environmental Medicine Cullen MR, Rosenstock L, Kilbourne EM. Textbook of Clinical Occupational and Environmental Medicine: Elsevier.2005;:3-15.
- Occupational health surveillance. Textbook of clinical occupational and environmental medicine Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders Company Baker EL, Matte TP. 2005;:76-82.
- Environmental and occupational medicine: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins Rom WN, Markowitz SB. 2007.
- Control CfD. NIOSH recommendations for occupational safety and health standards 1988. MMWR supplements 1988;37(7):1.
- Evaluation of the effectiveness of pre-employment screening Sorgdrager Bas, Hulshof Carel T. J., van Dijk Frank J. H.. International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health.2004;77(4). CrossRef
- The effect of simultaneous exposure to organic solvents and noise on high frequency hearing loss in tire manufacturing company workers Pourzarea G, Attarchi M, Valirad F, Mohammadi S. Occupational Medicine Quarterly Journal.2016;8(2):72-80.
- Sciences HDoP. NIOSH, Manual of Analytical Methods: US Government Printing Office; 1994 .
- Effect of Contemporary Exposure to Mixed Organic Solvents and Occupational Noise on Hearing Thresholds of Workers Mohammadi S, Labafinejad Y, Amiri Rigi A, Attarchi M. Zahedan J Res Med Sci.2010;11(4).
- Abstract viewed - 2095 times
- PDF (FULL TEXT) downloaded - 1020 times
- XML downloaded - 7 times