Diagnostic Accuracy of Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology, Triple Test and Tru-cut Biopsy in the Detection of Breast Lesion

  1. Nirmal Kumar Agarwal ,
  2. Dhirendra Nath Choudhury ,
  3. Akshit Minocha

Vol 8 No 3 (2023)

DOI 10.31557/apjcc.2023.8.3.539-543

Abstract

Background: The majority of breast illnesses manifest as a palpable mass. The vast majority of breast lesions are not malignant, and the vast majority of benign lesions do not progress to cancer; however, the accuracy of diagnosis can be improved by a combination of preoperative tests such as physical examination, mammography, fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC), and Trucut needle biopsy (TCNB) or core needle biopsy (CNB). FNAC has gained in popularity and is now the primary treatment performed after a history and clinical examination to diagnose solid and cystic breast masses. This study was designed to assess the accuracy of FNAC in comparison to Triple Test and TCNB for the diagnosis of breast masses.
Methodology: From January 2023 through May 2023, this study was conducted in the Tezpur Medical College and Hospital. The research included all female patients over the age of 20 with clinically palpable lumps. Palpable breast lumps need a complete clinical breast examination, imaging, and tissue sample for a clear diagnosis to rule out cancer.The Ultrasonography/Mammography, FNAC and tru-cut biopsy procedures were performed concurrently in the same region, and the results were compared to final histopathology as the gold standard.
Result: The majority of the patients in the study were in age group of > 60 years. In our study Left breast was involved in 41 (58.5%) patients and right breast in 29 (41.4%) patients. The most frequent site involved was upper outer quadrant in 38 (54.2%). The overall sensitivity of FNAC in our study was 93.75%, tru-cut biopsy is 100% and that of triple test is 100% and specificity for malignancy was 91.6%, 93.6 and 95.6% for FNAC, tru-cut biopsy and triple test respectively.
Conclusion: All three techniques have advantages and disadvantages. Core Needle Biopsy cannot be used in place of FNAC, and it is not required to identify all breast lesions. It can be utilised as an adjuvant in circumstances when cytology is definitive and biomarker tests are required. triple test and trucut were more accurate than FNAC in our testing.Trucut biopsy was able to provide histological diagnosis, and the findings were 100% consistent with the final histopathology report.


 

Introduction

Breast cancer is one of the most investigated cancers in the world, and new developments in its management are common. In India, the prevalence of breast cancer has now reached ENDEMIC levels. Numerous disorders, most of which manifest as lumps in the breast, including benign and malignant neoplasms, inflammatory diseases, and infections, can affect the breast. Breast lumps are among the most frequent complaints in surgical OPDs, thus it’s critical to distinguish between benign and malignant disorders before administering treatment. A comprehensive examination is the key to accurate diagnosis. Twenty to thirty percent of all malignancies worldwide [1] are caused by it. Early diagnosis is of utmost importance in the medical industry because treating patients in latter stages is frequently ineffective. Lack of education and screening programmes causes the ignorant people to be unaware of the terrible disease. The goal of developing a sensitive, specific, effective, and affordable way to diagnose breast cancer was to examine the breast lumps using a variety of diagnostic techniques. examination of the breast, mammography, Trucut biopsy (needle core bio psy),ultrasonography,thermography,FNAC,open excision biopsy is all used in diagnostic work up of a palpable breast lump [2]. This goal has long been served by FNAC, in addition to clinical evaluation and mammography. It has been shown to be quite useful in the diagnosis of breast lumps since, in addition to being affordable, it also makes the cytological testing [3] process simple and quick. The first priority investigation for patients with breast lumps is frequently the FNAC. Nevertheless, it has some drawbacks, including the inability to distinguish between invasive and in situ carcinomas, a lack of sample size, and false negative results. One of the important methods for obtaining a histopathological diagnosis today is trucut biopsy, also known as core needle biopsy. It is manageable and can be done without hospitalisation.

The triple test, first reported in 1975, involves the physical examination, mammography, and fine-needle aspiration of palpable breast tumours. When all three components are concordant, that is, all benign or all malignant, the triple test score (TTS) is helpful and reliable for assessing palpable breast masses and can substitute open surgical biopsy for diagnosis [4]. If the findings are inconsistent, the patient may be submitted to further testing and an open surgical biopsy. Clinical breast examination, breast imaging (Breast Ultrasound and/or Mammogram), and fine needle aspiration cytology are the three components of the Triple test.

A triple test was also submitted to a score system for the parameters mentioned earlier. Each criterion receives one to three points: benign (1 point), suspicious (2 points), and malignant (3 points).The total score between 3 and 9 is used to interpret the results.

1. A total score of 3-4 indicates a benign lesion.

2. A total score of 5 indicates an intermediate risk that necessitates an excisional biopsy.

3. A total score of 6 or above indicates the possibility of cancer and the need for surgical intervention.

TRU-CUT Biopsy: When evaluating a discrete lump in the breast, an ultrasound-guided automated Tru-cut needle biopsy may be utilised instead of fine needle aspiration cytology. The procedure’s sensitivity for diagnosing substantial pathology varies from 88.7% to 97%, while its specificity ranges from 96.8% to 100% [5-7]. When utilised in conjunction with a triple assessment, the sensitivity rises to 97.9% [7].

Core biopsy (CB) usage has grown, although not necessarily for evidence-based reasons. CB and FNAC do not contradict one other. FNAC should be used in the diagnosis of benign, symptomatic lesions, and CB as an alternative diagnostic modality should be used with caution, e.g., in the diagnosis of impalpable masses, microcalcifications, or a clinically apparent malignancy where preoperative chemotherapy is planned. CB should not be utilised to compensate for poor FNAC performance. Where expert cytopathologists are available, FNAC and CB may complement each other to give a highly accurate, quick, and cost-effective method of patient triage [8].

Materials and Methods

From January 2023 to May 2023, 70 consecutive females with palpable breast lumps were examined at the surgical out-patient department of the Tezpur Medical College and Hospital. The study included all girls older than 20 with palpable breast masses. Men, impalpable masses, recurring cancer, and age less than 20 years.ll patients provided written informed consent, which was obtained. Each patient underwent FNAC and tru-cut biopsy simultaneously after a thorough history, clinical examination, and mammography in those patients (> 40 years) who were indicated. A skilled surgeon performed the tru-cut biopsy, while a histopathologist performed the FNAC. To reduce the danger of bias, the FNAC and tru-cut biopsy slides were examined by two different histopathologists. Later, all of them underwent mastectomy or excision biopsy of the lump for definitive diagnosis confirmation. Both techniques results were collected, and their sensitivity levels were computed and compared.

FNAC was performed using an aseptic approach and a disposable syringe with a 21–23 gauge needle. Under local anaesthesia, tru-cut biopsy was performed on the lesions using needles between 14 and 16 gauge.

Results

In this study 70 females underwent FNAC, Tru-cut biopsy and Triple Assessment simultaneously. Mean age was 51.1

Left breast was involved in 41 (58.5%) patients and right breast in 29 (41.4%) patients.The most frequent site involved was upper outer quadrant in 38 (54.2%) patients centeral in 18 (25.7%) patients lower inner in 8 (11.4%) patients and upper inner in 6 (8.5%) respectively.

FNAC diagnosed breast cancer in 24 patients and 4 cases one of benign phyllodes, one atypical epithelial hyperplasia and two giant fibroadenoma were reported false positive. Four cases of invasive ductal carcinomas were reported false negative. Fibroadenomas were diagnosed in 26 cases, 24 confirmed on biopsy and one found out to be phylloides tumor and other epithelial hyperplasia each (false positive).

Out of 70 breast lesion 60 were diagnosed correctly on FNACwith 93.75% sensitivity and specificity for malignancy was 91.6% (Table 1).

Table 1. Showing Number of Breast Lump Cases in Different Age Groups.

Age group (in years) Number of cases
<30 6
30-39 8
40-49 14
50-59 20
>60 22

Trucut biopsy diagnosed the carcinoma in 26 patients. Invasive ductal carcinoma was diagnosed correctly in 16 cases. 10 cases which were only reported malignant on tru-cut came out to be invasive ductal carcinoma in 4 cases, lobular carcinoma in 3 cases and each case of benign phylloides tumor, atypical epithelial hyperplasia and giant fibroadenoma were false positive. 34 cases of fibroadenoma diagnosed on tru-cut were confirmed accurate on biopsy. Sensitivity calculated is 100%. with sixty seven out of seventy were reported accurately with no false negative result and specificity for malignancy is 93.6% (Table 2).

Table 2. Showing Number of Patients as Per Different Category of Breast Lesion after FNAC.

FNAC Diagnosis Number of cases Final Histopathology False Positive False Negative
Benign 20 Fibroadenoma - 11 - 4
    Phylloides Tumor - 3    
    Epithelial Hyperplasia -2    
    Ductal Cancer -4    
Fibroadenoma 26 Fibroadenoma -22 2 -
    Phyllodes tumor -1    
    Epithelial hyperplasia-1    
Ductal carcinoma 3 Ductal cancer - 3    
Malignant 21 Ductal cancer - 13 4 -
    Lobular Cancer - 4    
    Atypical Epithelial Hyperplasia -1    
    Phyllodes -1    
    Giant Fibroadenoma -2    

Triple Test diagnosed the carcinoma in 26 patients. Invasive ductal carcinoma was diagnosed correctly in 17 cases. 9 cases which were only reported malignant on tru-cut came out to be invasive ductal carcinoma in 4 cases, lobular carcinoma in 2 cases and each case of benign phylloides tumor and giant fibroadenoma were false positive. 34 cases of fibroadenoma diagnosed on Triple Test confirmed accurate on biopsy. Sensitivity calculated is 100%. with sixty eight out of seventy were reported accurately with no false negative result and specificity for malignancy is 95.6% (Table 3).

Table 3. Showing Number of Patients as Per Different Category of Breast Lesion after Tru-cut Biopsy.

Tru-cut Diagnosis Number of patients Final Histopathology False Positive False Negative
Benign 8 Fibroadenoma - 4 - -
    Phylloides Tumor - 2    
    Epithelial Hyperplasia -2    
Fibroadenoma 34 Fibroadenoma - 34 - -
Phylloides 2 Phylloides -2 - -
Ductal Cancer 16 Ductal Cancer - 16 - -
Malignant 10 Ductal cancer - 4 3 -
    Lobular Cancer - 3    
    Atypical Epithelial Hyperplasia -1    
    Phyllodes -1    
    Giant Fibroadenoma -1    

The overall sensitivity of FNAC in our study was 93.75% , tru-cut biopsy is 100% and that of triple test is 100% and specificity for malignancy was 91.6%, 93.6 and 95.6% for FNAC, tru-cut biopsy and triple test respectively.

Discussion

In our study, FNAC and trucut biopsy were performed on the same lesion and the operator dependence has been standardized. People used to undergo excision biopsy of fibroadenoma to remove the tumor and establish diagnosis. Now tru-cut biopsy is widely used and lesion is left undisturbed in the breast if the diagnosis is fibroadenoma. Fibroadenoma was the most common histopathological diagnosis and comprised 54.2% of the total cases. In our study, 38 cases of fibroadenomas were reported on histopathology, of them 34 were correctly diagnosed on Tru-cut biopsy reflecting the high accuracy of trucut biopsy (Table 3). In 3 (4.2%), 16 (22.8%) and 17 (24.2%)of these were detected on FNAC, Trucut samples and Triple test accurately detected invasive ductal cancer. The remaining 13 (18.5%), 4 (6.1%) and 4 cases in FNAC Trucut biopsies and triple test, respectively, were reported as malignant (Tables 2, 3 and 4).

Table 4. Showing Number of Patients as Per Different Category of Breast Lesion after Triple Test.

Triple Test Diagnosis Number of patients Final Histopathology False Positive False Negative
Benign 8 Fibroadenoma - 4 - -
    Phylloides Tumor - 2    
    Epithelial Hyperplasia -2    
Fibroadenoma 34 Fibroadenoma - 34 - -
Phylloides 2 Phylloides -2 - -
Ductal Cancer 17 Ductal Cancer - 17 - -
Malignant 19 Ductal cancer - 4 2 -
    Lobular Cancer - 3    
    Phyllodes -1    
    Giant Fibroadenoma -1    

Four incidences of invasive ductal carcinoma were identified on histology out of 20 benign lesions on FNAC (Table 2). respectively.”Phyllodes tumours can spread to other parts of the body if they are malignant and have a 20% to 40% local recurrence rate [9]. In our investigation, two out of five phylloides tumours had a correct Tru-cut biopsy diagnosis.The remaining three were described as benign (two) and malignant (one). FNAC identified three of the phylloides tumours as benign lesions, one as a fibroadenoma, and one as malignant after failing to diagnose any of the tumours. Overall FNAC sensitivity in our study was 93.75%, and trucut biopsy sensitivity was 100%. In a study that was equivalent to ours, the sensitivity of FNAC and Trucut was found to be 88% and 96%, respectively [10]. Our study’s results are comparable to those from another study [11] that indicated the FNAC and trucut biopsy’s sensitivity as 81.4% and 91.5%, respectively. Our study’s 93.75% FNAC sensitivity was equivalent to those of prior research [12-14].” The 100% sensitivity of the trucut biopsy in our study is comparable to the 96.7% and 100% sensitivities of the trucut biopsy in studies by Loffeet al [15] and Memonet a [16]. In our investigation, the FNAC and tru-cut specificities for malignancy were 91.6% and 93.6%, respectively, comparable to the FNAC (100%) and tru-cut biopsy (100%) in one study [4,17].

In conclusion, all three techniques have advantages and disadvantages. Core Needle Biopsy cannot be used in place of FNAC, and it is not required to identify all breast lesions.It can be utilised as an adjuvant in circumstances when cytology is definitive and biomarker tests are required. triple test and trucut were more accurate than FNAC in our testing.Trucut biopsy was able to provide histological diagnosis, and the findings were 100% consistent with the final histopathology report.

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Copyright

© Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Care , 2023

Author Details

Nirmal Kumar Agarwal
Department of General Surgery, India.

Dhirendra Nath Choudhury
Department of General Surgery, India.

Akshit Minocha
Department of General Surgery, India.
akshitminocha1@gmail.com

How to Cite

Agarwal, N., Choudhury, D., & Minocha, A. (2023). Diagnostic Accuracy of Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology, Triple Test and Tru-cut Biopsy in the Detection of Breast Lesion. Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Care, 8(3), 539-543. https://doi.org/10.31557/apjcc.2023.8.3.539-543
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